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Platelet rich plasma in oral and maxillofacial surgery from the perspective of composition


The application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in oral and maxillofacial surgery has been thoroughly studied in the last two decades. Currently, different types of PRP are applied in the clinical practice, being the presence or absence of leukocytes one of the classification criteria. However, there is poor evidence assessing the influence of the PRP composition in their efficacy. In this context, the aim of this narrative review is to compile the existing evidence covering the efficacy of PRP in oral and maxillofacial surgery, starting from a systematic literature search and to qualitatively describe the efficacy outcomes from the composition perspective. According to the results of this review, the application of PRP in oral and maxillofacial surgery is a potential strategy to improve soft- and hard-tissue regeneration, observing differences in the efficacy of PRP depending on its composition and the studied application. P-PRP (the absence of leukocytes) has been more consistent in achieving beneficial effects in alveolar ridge preservation, management of post-extraction complications, bone augmentation and temporomandibular joint disorders. For that, the composition and methodology used to prepare the PRP should be a critical point when evaluating the efficacy of PRP.

Keywords: Alveolar ridge augmentation; leukocytes; oral surgery; periodontal diseases; platelet-rich plasma.